Author Topic: Brain Computer Interfacing: Applications, Challenges and the Future  (Read 59 times)

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abstract source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110866515000237

PDF source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/sdfe/reader/pii/S1110866515000237/pdf

I'm sure that we will be able to get stoned WITHOUT drugs in the future, I have no doubt whatsoever !

Brain Computer Interfacing: Applications and Challenges

June 2015

Abstract:

Brain computer interface technology represents a highly growing field of research with application systems. Its contributions in medical fields range from prevention to neuronal rehabilitation for serious injuries.

Mind reading and remote communication have their unique fingerprint in numerous fields such as educational, self-regulation, production, marketing, security as well as games and entertainment.

It creates a mutual understanding between users and the surrounding systems. This paper shows the application areas that could benefit from brain waves in facilitating or achieving their goals.

We also discuss major usability and technical challenges that face brain signals utilization in various components of BCI system. Different solutions that aim to limit and decrease their effects have also been reviewed.

see the attached PDF or go to the PDF link

source: https://in-training.org/future-brain-computer-interface-technology-15655

The Future of Brain Computer Interface Technology

Jan 22, 2018

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are increasingly becoming reliable pieces of technology, changing the lives of patients, particularly of patients who suffer from paralysis or similar conditions. BCI is defined as computer technology that can interact with neural structures by decoding and translating information from thoughts (i.e., neuronal activity) into actions. BCI technology may be used for thought-to-text translation or to control movements of a prosthetic limb. The umbrella term BCI covers invasive BCI, partial invasive BCI and non-invasive BCI. Invasive BCI includes the implantation and use of technology within the human body, such as surgically placed electrodes to directly detect electrical potentials. Partial invasive BCI devices are external recorders that detect signals from superficially implanted devices. An example of partial invasive BCI is electrocorticography (ECoG), which records activity of the brain via an electrode grid that was surgically embedded. The previous example is considered “partial” because the electrode grid is placed directly on the brain, but not permanently implanted inside of the brain. Non-invasive BCI technology involves external sensors/electrodes, as seen with electroencephalography (EEG).

BCI research intends to restore and enhance neural features of the central nervous system by linking it to a computer system. A professor at the University of California, Jacques Vidal, coined the term BCI in the mid-late 1900’s. The earliest published experiment, published in the year 1977, consisted of moving a cursor on a screen based on EEG waves. This experiment was monumental for the field of BCI, because it was the first recorded successful use of BCI in the laboratory. Importantly, this work proved feasibility and paved the road for further research developments. There has been much additional research on BCI since then, including groundbreaking work that used BCI devices to assist blind people navigate their environment. Perhaps the best-known application of BCI technology is in the form of neural prosthetic devices. An example of this type of BCI is a cochlear implant.

A recent study at Stanford University highlighted why BCI technology will continue to grow in relevance to the medical field. The study describes the application of BCI technology to three paralytic patients (two with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and one with a spinal cord injury). In the study, these patients could successfully move an onscreen cursor by imagining the necessary hand movements. To enable this remarkable feat, each patient had electrodes implanted into their motor cortex to record brain signaling and to transmit signals to a computer.

BCI technology has also been used to help ALS patients suffering from varying degrees of “locked-in syndrome” and has provided the means for them to communicate using humanoid robots. Humanoid robots are robots that are designed to have the shape of a human body. Post-hoc analysis of the preliminary data indicates that such patients can communicate using humanoid robots to accomplish routine tasks, such as retrieve mail or pick up a plate to eat dinner from. This technology could potentially be life changing. Before this type of research, patients solely depended on a caregiver, such as family members or friends to accomplish simple tasks.

A project called “Brainternet” is generating additional excitement for the field of BCI technology by converting the brain of a user into a node for the internet of things (IoT), which allows a “plugged-in” brain to connect to the internet. A headset of electrodes is attached and action potentials are detected and then transmitted to a small receiver called a Raspberry Pi. This device acts to convert brain activity into signals uploaded to public domains on the internet. The process can be tracked in real time. Once connected, a user can communicate with other users online by using brainwaves detected via an EEG device.

The possibilities of BCI technology are nowhere near exhausted. The emergence of non-invasive BCI devices — based off an EEG — is emblematic of future mainstream accessibility of BCI technology. For example, BCI technology can allow users to create music with their thoughts. The specific device for this is called an encephalophone, which is controlled by the visual or motor cortex. The device works by receiving input from cortical signals such as the posterior dominant rhythm (PDR) from the visual cortex or the mu signal from the motor cortex. This technology can be used by people who suffer from neurodegenerative conditions, but most likely will also become a mainstream product.

In conclusion, BCI has progressively achieved several monumental milestones. The future impact of BCI in terms of patient care is slowly starting to come into focus. It is important to remember that the generation of physicians that we belong to will be in charge of knowing and integrating new technology, to provide better care to our patients.



« Last Edit: July 23, 2019, 08:31:48 AM by Chip »
Over 90% of all computer problems can be traced back to the interface between the keyboard and the chair !

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