Author Topic: MDMA: What it is and it's History and Who is Using it  (Read 25 times)

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MDMA: What it is and it's History and Who is Using it
« on: July 07, 2019, 11:26:33 AM »
source: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/mdma-ecstasy-abuse/what-mdma

What is it ?



3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a derivative of amphetamine and a member of the phenethylamine family of chemicals that may act as stimulants, hallucinogens, and/or entactogens.

MDMA is a synthetic drug that acts as a stimulant and hallucinogen. It produces an energizing effect, distortions in time and perception, and enhanced enjoyment from sensory experiences. It has also been described as an entactogen—a drug that can increase self-awareness and empathy.

Ecstasy is often used to refer to MDMA in the tablet or capsule form, which is the most common way people take the drug.

Researchers have determined that many ecstasy tablets contain not only MDMA at different concentrations, but also a number of other drugs or drug combinations that can be harmful.

Adulterants found in ecstasy tablets purchased on the street have included methamphetamine, the anesthetic ketamine, caffeine, the diet drug ephedrine, the over-the-counter cough suppressant dextromethorphanWiki, heroin, phencyclidine (PCP), and cocaine.



Some people mistakenly believe that using Molly can avoid contaminants often found in ecstasy, not realizing that drugs sold as Molly may not be MDMA.

Molly—slang for “molecular”—refers to the crystalline powder form of MDMA, usually sold as powder or in capsules. Some people mistakenly believe that Molly does not contain contaminants often found in ecstasy. In fact, chemical analyses of drugs sold as Molly and seized by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) have shown that they often contain other types of drugs and may not contain any MDMA.

For example, epidemiologists from Washington state and Florida reported in 2013 that substances being sold as Molly were actually methyloneWiki, a synthetic stimulant commonly found in “bath salts.” In 2015, ethyloneWiki, a synthetic stimulant similar to methylone but with some differences in binding within the brain, replaced methylone as the main substance marketed as Molly. This underscores that people who take Molly often do not know what they are ingesting, and the substances sold as Molly may pose serious health risks.

When MDMA is taken in tablet or capsule form, a person begins feeling the effects 45 minutes later, on average. These effects peak 15 to 30 minutes after they are first felt and last an average of 3 hours,27 though side effects could be experienced up to days later.

People typically take one to two tablets on each occasion, with each tablet generally containing between 50 and 150 milligrams of MDMA.

People often take a second dose of the drug as the effects of the first dose begin to fade,32 increasing the risk of adverse side effects as doses combine.

MDMA seized in the United States is primarily synthesized in Canada and, to a lesser extent, the Netherlands. There are a small number of illegal MDMA labs operating in the United States.

source: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/mdma-ecstasy-abuse/what-is-the-history-of-mdma

What is the history of MDMA ?

MDMA was developed by a German pharmaceutical company in 1912. Originally known as “Methylsafrylaminc,” it was intended as a parent compound to synthesize medications that control bleeding, not to control appetite as is often incorrectly cited.

MDMA gained a small following among psychiatrists in the late 1970s and early 1980s, despite the fact that the drug had not undergone formal clinical trials nor received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans. Some psychiatrists believed that it enhanced communication in patient sessions and allowed patients to achieve insights about their problems. It was also during this time that MDMA started becoming more widely available on the street.

In 1985, the DEA declared an emergency ban on MDMA, placing it on the list of Schedule I drugs, defined as substances with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. MDMA has remained a Schedule I substance since then, with the exception of a brief period of time between 1987 and 1988.

Does MDMA Have Therapeutic Value ?

The evidence on MDMA’s therapeutic effects is limited thus far, although research is ongoing in this area.

Proponents of MDMA-assisted therapy recommend that it only be used for reactive disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder because it can worsen some psychiatric conditions.

In the early 1990s, the FDA approved the first human trial exploring whether MDMA could help relieve pain in terminally ill patients, as well as serve as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Results from this study have not been published; however, these early studies helped establish safety parameters for administering MDMA to human participants in controlled, clinical settings.

Clinical trials are ongoing to explore whether MDMA has therapeutic potential in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety in autistic adults and patients with a terminal illness such as cancer.

source: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/mdma-ecstasy-abuse/who-is-using-mdma

Who is using MDMA ?



MDMA first gained popularity among adolescents and young adults in the nightclub scene and at dance parties known as raves. However, the profile of the typical person who uses MDMA has been changing. Beginning in 1999, community-level data from NIDA's Community Epidemiology Work Group began to report that use of MDMA had spread among populations outside the nightclub scene.

MDMA is predominantly used by males between the ages of 18 and 25.43,50 Most use typically begins at 21 years of age.51

NIDA-funded research shows that sexual orientation also influences MDMA usage rates. For example, gay or bisexual men and women are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to have used MDMA within the last 30 days and to report harm associated with MDMA use.
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