Author Topic: Recent Review Articles on Khat & Ephedra  (Read 61 times)

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Recent Review Articles on Khat & Ephedra
« on: October 20, 2018, 11:25:42 AM »
source: https://www.thevespiary.org/talk/index.php/topic,8347

Review Article:

Khat: pharmacological and medical aspects and its social use in Yemen

Ahmed Al-Motarreb, Kathryn Baker, Kenneth J Broadley
Phytotherapy Research 16(5), 403-413 (2002)

(https://www.thevespiary.org/rhodium/Rhodium/pdf/khat-chewing.review.pdf)
DOI:

10.1002/ptr.1106



Abstract

Fresh leaves of the khat tree (Catha edulis Forsk.) are chewed for their euphoric properties in East Africa and parts of the Middle East, such as The Yemen. This review describes the history, cultivation and constituents of khat, and the social aspects of khat chewing in Yemen. The major pharmacologically active constituent of the fresh leaves is (-)-S-cathinone. The pharmacology of (-)-S-cathinone in the central nervous system and the peripheral effects are described. (-)-S-Cathinone is regarded as an amphetamine-like sympathomimetic amine and this mechanism of action is discussed in relation to the central stimulant actions and the cardiovascular effects of increasing blood pressure and heart rate. The risk factors associated with khat chewing are described, with emphasis on the reported increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction.
____ ___ __ _

Ephedra in perspective - a current review

Ehab A. Abourashed, Abir T. El-Alfy, Ikhlas A. Khan, Larry Walker
Phytotherapy Research, 17(7), 703-712 (2003)

(https://www.thevespiary.org/rhodium/Rhodium/pdf/ephedra-current.review.pdf)
DOI:

10.1002/ptr.1337



Abstract

Although the traditional use of Ephedra ma huang has been established for thousands of years, its resurgencein the US as a herbal dietary supplement is currently a matter of national controversy. At the heart of the debate are three important questions: (1) the identity and composition of Ephedra products with regard to ephedrine and related alkaloids; (2) the potential therapeutic utility of Ephedra supplements for weight loss or performance enhancement; and (3) potential health risks associated with such uses of Ephedra, particularly in sensitive individuals or in cases of intentional abuse for its stimulant properties. This review surveys the literature on Ephedra with regard to traditional uses, botany, chemistry, analytics, pharmacological effects and health risks. A brief discussion of the central issues in the current debate on the regulation of Ephedra in the United States is included as this is where most of the problems have occurred to date.


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